Get Advice Regarding Your Child's Behavior!

Consultation services includes short-term interventions (4 session maximum) to identify reasons for a child’s recent change in behavior that may present as:

 

  • School Refusal – When a child refuses to attend school due to emotional distress, most often from anxiety or fear

 

  • School placement decisions – Provide professional guidance on the best academic placement setting for your child based on their cognitive and academic strengths and weakness as well as social-emotional needs.

 

  • Consultations with other healthcare providers – provide pediatricians, speech/language pathologists, neurologists, occupational therapists, psychotherapists with strategies or guidance on the learning and social-emotional needs of the child.

 

  • Adjustment to recent environmental changes/stressors – assist parents with children that have recently experienced changes in their environment such as beginning a new school, difficulties with upcoming medical procedures, test anxiety related to an upcoming exam, etc.

Consultation services includes short-term interventions (4 session maximum) to identify reasons for a child’s recent change in behavior that may present as:

  • School Refusal – When a child refuses to attend school due to emotional distress, most often from anxiety or fear
  • School placement decisions – Provide professional guidance on the best academic placement setting for your child based on their cognitive and academic strengths and weakness as well as social-emotional needs.
  • Consultations with other healthcare providers – provide pediatricians, speech/language pathologists, neurologists, occupational therapists, psychotherapists with strategies or guidance on the learning and social-emotional needs of the child.
  • Adjustment to recent environmental changes/stressors – assist parents with children that have recently experienced changes in their environment such as beginning a new school, difficulties with upcoming medical procedures, test anxiety related to an upcoming exam, etc.

Areas of Specialty

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)
Autism, or autism spectrum disorder is characterized by challenges with social skills, repetitive behaviors, speech and nonverbal communication. There are many types of autism, caused by different combinations of genetic and environmental influences.

 

The term “spectrum” reflects the wide variation in challenges and strengths possessed by each person with autism.

Autism’s most-obvious signs tend to appear between 2 and 3 years of age. In some cases, it can be diagnosed as early as 18 months.

Some facts about autism 

  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates autism’s prevalence as 1 in 68 children in the United States. This includes 1 in 42 boys and 1 in 189 girls.
  • An estimated 50,000 teens with autism become adults – and lose school-based autism services – each year.
  • Around one third of people with autism remain nonverbal.
  • Around one third of people with autism have an intellectual disability.
  • Certain medical and mental health issues frequently accompany autism. They include gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, seizures, sleep disturbances, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety and phobias.

Children with autism may display some of the following behaviors or difficulties:

  • Difficulties initiating or sustaining social interactions
  • Language delays
  • Limited or no eye contact
  • Limited use of gestures
  • Repetitive behaviors or motor mannerism
  • Limited interest in interacting with peers or adults; may prefer to be alone
  • Intense preoccupation with certain topics
  • Difficulty with changes in routine
  • Cognitive inflexibility or rigidity
  • Limited imaginative or creative play
  • Sensory aversions or preoccupations
  • Difficulties with sleep
  • Difficulty understanding social rules

Reference: https://www.autismspeaks.org/what-autism

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

What is the Definition of ADHD?

ADHD is a highly genetic, brain-based syndrome that has to do with the regulation of a particular set of brain functions and related behaviors and are often referred to as  “executive functioning skills” and include important functions such as attention, concentration, memory, motivation and effort, learning from mistakes, impulsivity, hyperactivity, organization, and social skills.

Are ADD and ADHD the same thing?

There are several subtypes of ADHD. Those that are predominantly inattentive but are not necessarily hyperactive/impulsive are usually diagnosed as having ADHD, Predominantly Inattentive Type. People with these difficulties often are diagnosed later on when compared to individuals that display difficulties with attention in addition to hyperactivity and impulsivity.

What Is The Definition Of ADHD?

  • Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, at work, or with other activities.
  • Often has trouble holding attention on tasks or play activities.
  • Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly.
  • Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (e.g., loses focus, side-tracked).
  • Often has trouble organizing tasks and activities.
  • Often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to do tasks that require mental effort over a long period of time (such as schoolwork or homework).
  • Often loses things necessary for tasks and activities (e.g. school materials, pencils, books, tools, wallets, keys, paperwork, eyeglasses, mobile telephones).
  • Is often easily distracted
  • Is often forgetful in daily activities.
  • Often fidgets with or taps hands or feet, or squirms in seat.
  • Often leaves seat in situations when remaining seated is expected.
  • Often runs about or climbs in situations where it is not appropriate (adolescents or adults may be limited to feeling restless).
  • Often unable to play or take part in leisure activities quietly.
  • Is often “on the go” acting as if “driven by a motor”.
  • Often talks excessively.
  • Often blurts out an answer before a question has been completed.
  • Often has trouble waiting his/her turn.
  • Often interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g., butts into conversations or games)

ADHD is NOT caused by: poor parenting, falls or head injuries, traumatic life events, digital distractions, video games and television, lack of physical activity, food additives, food allergies, or excess sugar. ADHD is a genetic condition caused by chemical, structural, and connectivity differences in the brain and is highly inheritable.

References

American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition. Arlington, VA., American Psychiatric Association, 2013.

https://add.org/adhd-facts/

Learning & Processing Disorders (Reading, Mathematics, & Writing)

Learning Disorders

Learning Disorders are present when there is a significant difference between an individual’s overall cognitive abilities or learning potential (IQ) and their academic performance in a specific area (reading, writing, or mathematics); their academic performance is significantly lower than expected given their estimated reasoning abilities and age and grade.  There are three different types of learning disorders:

Specific Learning Disorder with Impairment in Reading: Formerly referred to as Dyslexia, individuals with a reading disorder can present with difficulties such as one or more of the following:

  • Difficulties with reading comprehension
  • Difficulties with Phonetic awareness and phonetic blending
  • Impairment in their letter-word recognition skills
  • Difficulty reading quickly and accurately
  • Letter reversals

Specific Learning Disorder with Impairment in Mathematics: Also referred to as Dyscalculia, individuals with a mathematics disorder experience the following:

  • Difficulty understanding number sense
  • Difficulties performing numerical operations quickly and accurately
  • Difficulty understanding and completing applied word problems

Specific Learning Disorder with Impairment in Written Expression: Also referred to as Dysgraphia, individuals with a writing disorder may display the following:

  • Difficulty expressing thoughts in written words
  • Difficulties with spelling
  • Frequent letter reversals when writing
  • Impairment in their ability to quickly and accurately produce written content

Processing Disorders

Individuals are not underachieving in one specific academic area but rather have difficulties in a variety of areas of areas of their functioning that may be related to the following processing disorders:

  • Slowed processing speed
  • Impairments in working memory
  • Deficits in auditory processing
  • Difficulties with verbal reasoning
  • Visual-spatial/nonverbal reasoning deficits

Developmental Delays
A child is considered to have a developmental delay when one or more area of their development is lagging behind what is considered the expected time frame for the emergence of developmental skills. Developmental delays can be observed in one or more of the following areas:

  • Speech/Language Development
  • Social-Emotional Development
  • Adaptive/Independent Living Skills
  • Gross or Fine Motor Development

Early identification and intervention is crucial to improving long-term outcomes in children with developmental delays.

Anxiety/Depressive Disorders
Social-emotional difficulties such as anxiety and depression can be observed in children as young as toddlers through the adolescent years. Although young children may lack the ability to accurately express their feelings and older children and adolescents may be hesitant/resistant to share feelings with adults, emotional difficulties can negatively impact an individual in many areas of their lives. Children and adolescents may display the following behaviors:

  • Excessive fear of separation from parents/caregivers beyond what is considered developmentally appropriate
  • Irritability
  • Frequent mood changes
  • Irritable outbursts
  • Difficulty sleeping or increase in sleep
  • Frequent worrying
  • Avoidance of certain people, places, or things
  • Changes in their ability to focus/concentrate
  • Lack of interest in activities they enjoy
  • Decline in grades/academic performance
  • Decreased energy
  • Fidgeting/Hyperactivity

Gifted & Talented

 

Individuals that are considered “Gifted” demonstrate extremely well developed cognitive reasoning abilities that are exceptionally well developed in comparison to same-age peers. Gifted children often benefit from individualized/accelerated academic instruction in order to prevent boredom. Children that are Gifted may display some of the following:

  • A highly developed vocabulary
  • Tendency to use more complex language or more elaborate/detailed sentences than same-age peers
  • Frequently asking questions about their environment and seeking explanations/reasons
  • Can carry-out multistep directions at a young age
  • The ability to learn new information quickly and efficiently
  • They ask questions that display advanced insight and understanding.
  • An inclination to see learning as fun
  • May be more emotionally intense than other children but also show more sympathy
  • At tendency to think and talk fast

Intellectual Disabilites

 

An intellectual disability is characterized by global impairments in all areas of the individual’s life that is a result of deficits in a person’s reasoning including verbal reasoning, visual-spatial reasoning, processing speed, academic achievement, independent living, and social skills.  These difficulties are present before the age of 18 years old and continue throughout a person’s entire life. There are different levels of impairment characterized as Mild, Moderate, Severe, and Profound. Individuals with an intellectual disability generally require a specialized educational placement and supervision in their daily life as adults.

Areas of Specialty

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)
Autism, or autism spectrum disorder is characterized by challenges with social skills, repetitive behaviors, speech and nonverbal communication. There are many types of autism, caused by different combinations of genetic and environmental influences.

 

The term “spectrum” reflects the wide variation in challenges and strengths possessed by each person with autism.

Autism’s most-obvious signs tend to appear between 2 and 3 years of age. In some cases, it can be diagnosed as early as 18 months.

Some facts about autism 

  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates autism’s prevalence as 1 in 68 children in the United States. This includes 1 in 42 boys and 1 in 189 girls.
  • An estimated 50,000 teens with autism become adults – and lose school-based autism services – each year.
  • Around one third of people with autism remain nonverbal.
  • Around one third of people with autism have an intellectual disability.
  • Certain medical and mental health issues frequently accompany autism. They include gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, seizures, sleep disturbances, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety and phobias.

Children with autism may display some of the following behaviors or difficulties:

  • Difficulties initiating or sustaining social interactions
  • Language delays
  • Limited or no eye contact
  • Limited use of gestures
  • Repetitive behaviors or motor mannerism
  • Limited interest in interacting with peers or adults; may prefer to be alone
  • Intense preoccupation with certain topics
  • Difficulty with changes in routine
  • Cognitive inflexibility or rigidity
  • Limited imaginative or creative play
  • Sensory aversions or preoccupations
  • Difficulties with sleep
  • Difficulty understanding social rules

Reference: https://www.autismspeaks.org/what-autism

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

What is the Definition of ADHD?

ADHD is a highly genetic, brain-based syndrome that has to do with the regulation of a particular set of brain functions and related behaviors and are often referred to as  “executive functioning skills” and include important functions such as attention, concentration, memory, motivation and effort, learning from mistakes, impulsivity, hyperactivity, organization, and social skills.

Are ADD and ADHD the same thing?

There are several subtypes of ADHD. Those that are predominantly inattentive but are not necessarily hyperactive/impulsive are usually diagnosed as having ADHD, Predominantly Inattentive Type. People with these difficulties often are diagnosed later on when compared to individuals that display difficulties with attention in addition to hyperactivity and impulsivity.

What Is The Definition Of ADHD?

  • Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, at work, or with other activities.
  • Often has trouble holding attention on tasks or play activities.
  • Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly.
  • Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (e.g., loses focus, side-tracked).
  • Often has trouble organizing tasks and activities.
  • Often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to do tasks that require mental effort over a long period of time (such as schoolwork or homework).
  • Often loses things necessary for tasks and activities (e.g. school materials, pencils, books, tools, wallets, keys, paperwork, eyeglasses, mobile telephones).
  • Is often easily distracted
  • Is often forgetful in daily activities.
  • Often fidgets with or taps hands or feet, or squirms in seat.
  • Often leaves seat in situations when remaining seated is expected.
  • Often runs about or climbs in situations where it is not appropriate (adolescents or adults may be limited to feeling restless).
  • Often unable to play or take part in leisure activities quietly.
  • Is often “on the go” acting as if “driven by a motor”.
  • Often talks excessively.
  • Often blurts out an answer before a question has been completed.
  • Often has trouble waiting his/her turn.
  • Often interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g., butts into conversations or games)

ADHD is NOT caused by: poor parenting, falls or head injuries, traumatic life events, digital distractions, video games and television, lack of physical activity, food additives, food allergies, or excess sugar. ADHD is a genetic condition caused by chemical, structural, and connectivity differences in the brain and is highly inheritable.

References

American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition. Arlington, VA., American Psychiatric Association, 2013.

https://add.org/adhd-facts/

Learning & Processing Disorders (Reading, Mathematics, & Writing)

Learning Disorders

Learning Disorders are present when there is a significant difference between an individual’s overall cognitive abilities or learning potential (IQ) and their academic performance in a specific area (reading, writing, or mathematics); their academic performance is significantly lower than expected given their estimated reasoning abilities and age and grade.  There are three different types of learning disorders:

Specific Learning Disorder with Impairment in Reading: Formerly referred to as Dyslexia, individuals with a reading disorder can present with difficulties such as one or more of the following:

  • Difficulties with reading comprehension
  • Difficulties with Phonetic awareness and phonetic blending
  • Impairment in their letter-word recognition skills
  • Difficulty reading quickly and accurately
  • Letter reversals

Specific Learning Disorder with Impairment in Mathematics: Also referred to as Dyscalculia, individuals with a mathematics disorder experience the following:

  • Difficulty understanding number sense
  • Difficulties performing numerical operations quickly and accurately
  • Difficulty understanding and completing applied word problems

Specific Learning Disorder with Impairment in Written Expression: Also referred to as Dysgraphia, individuals with a writing disorder may display the following:

  • Difficulty expressing thoughts in written words
  • Difficulties with spelling
  • Frequent letter reversals when writing
  • Impairment in their ability to quickly and accurately produce written content

Processing Disorders

Individuals are not underachieving in one specific academic area but rather have difficulties in a variety of areas of areas of their functioning that may be related to the following processing disorders:

  • Slowed processing speed
  • Impairments in working memory
  • Deficits in auditory processing
  • Difficulties with verbal reasoning
  • Visual-spatial/nonverbal reasoning deficits

Developmental Delays
A child is considered to have a developmental delay when one or more area of their development is lagging behind what is considered the expected time frame for the emergence of developmental skills. Developmental delays can be observed in one or more of the following areas:

  • Speech/Language Development
  • Social-Emotional Development
  • Adaptive/Independent Living Skills
  • Gross or Fine Motor Development

Early identification and intervention is crucial to improving long-term outcomes in children with developmental delays.

Anxiety/Depressive Disorders
Social-emotional difficulties such as anxiety and depression can be observed in children as young as toddlers through the adolescent years. Although young children may lack the ability to accurately express their feelings and older children and adolescents may be hesitant/resistant to share feelings with adults, emotional difficulties can negatively impact an individual in many areas of their lives. Children and adolescents may display the following behaviors:

  • Excessive fear of separation from parents/caregivers beyond what is considered developmentally appropriate
  • Irritability
  • Frequent mood changes
  • Irritable outbursts
  • Difficulty sleeping or increase in sleep
  • Frequent worrying
  • Avoidance of certain people, places, or things
  • Changes in their ability to focus/concentrate
  • Lack of interest in activities they enjoy
  • Decline in grades/academic performance
  • Decreased energy
  • Fidgeting/Hyperactivity

Gifted & Talented

 

Individuals that are considered “Gifted” demonstrate extremely well developed cognitive reasoning abilities that are exceptionally well developed in comparison to same-age peers. Gifted children often benefit from individualized/accelerated academic instruction in order to prevent boredom. Children that are Gifted may display some of the following:

  • A highly developed vocabulary
  • Tendency to use more complex language or more elaborate/detailed sentences than same-age peers
  • Frequently asking questions about their environment and seeking explanations/reasons
  • Can carry-out multistep directions at a young age
  • The ability to learn new information quickly and efficiently
  • They ask questions that display advanced insight and understanding.
  • An inclination to see learning as fun
  • May be more emotionally intense than other children but also show more sympathy
  • At tendency to think and talk fast

Intellectual Disabilites

 

An intellectual disability is characterized by global impairments in all areas of the individual’s life that is a result of deficits in a person’s reasoning including verbal reasoning, visual-spatial reasoning, processing speed, academic achievement, independent living, and social skills.  These difficulties are present before the age of 18 years old and continue throughout a person’s entire life. There are different levels of impairment characterized as Mild, Moderate, Severe, and Profound. Individuals with an intellectual disability generally require a specialized educational placement and supervision in their daily life as adults.